CSBMM
Sneha M. Pinto, Ph.D.

DST-INSPIRE Faculty and Assistant Professor


Biography

Dr. Sneha M. Pinto is a recipient of INSPIRE Faculty Award from the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. She obtained her Ph.D. degree from Institute of Bioinformatics, Bangalore and Manipal University, Manipal, India. She worked in Dr. Akhilesh Pandey´s laboratory at Johns Hopkins University to carry out a part of her thesis work to identify components of Interleukin-33 signaling pathway. She has employed both in vivo and in vitro labeling techniques including SILAC and iTRAQ/TMT for quantitative proteomics. She is currently involved in the identification of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers in various infectious diseases. She is also focusing on systems wide analysis of post translational modifications and signaling networks using high resolution mass spectrometry approaches.

Scientific discipline
  • Genomics and proteomics of infectious diseases
  • Multiple Post translational modifications and signaling pathways
  • Education
  • Ph.D. in Proteomics, Institute of Bioinformatics, Bangalore, India, 2015
  • M.Sc. in Medical Biochemistry, Manipal University, India, 2006
  • Positions held
  • DST-INSPIRE Faculty and Assistant Professor, Center for Systems Biology and Molecular Medicine, Mangalore, India, 2015 – present
  • Faculty Scientist, Institute of Bioinformatics, India, 2015 – present
  • Research Scholar, Johns Hopkins University, USA, 2012–2014
  • Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Bioinformatics, Bangalore, India, 2009–2014
  • Junior Research Fellow, St. John’s Research Institute, Bangalore, India, 2007–2009
  • Honors and Awards
  • INSPIRE Faculty Award, Department of Science & Technology, Government of India
  • Recipient of Senior Research Fellow, CSIR, Government of India
  • Recipient of Junior Research Fellow, ICMR, Government of India
  • Professional memberships/reviewer
  • Reviewer: Proteomics, International Journal of Oncology, Current Science, BMC Bioinformatics, OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology
  • Life Member, Proteomics Society, India : 2016
  • Publications

    Research papers: 43; Review articles: 2; Book Chapters: 1

    • Kumar, M., Mohanty, A. K., Sreenivasamurthy, S. K., Dey, G., Advani, J., Pinto, S. M., Kumar, A. and Prasad, T. S. K. (2017). Response to blood meal in the fat body of Anopheles stephensi using quantitative proteomics: Towards new vector control strategies against malaria. OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology. [Pubmed]
    • Solanki, H. S., Advani, J., Khan, A. A., Radhakrishnan, A., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Pinto, S. M., Chang, X., Prasad, T. S. K., Mathur, P. P., Sidransky, D., Gowda, H. and Chatterjee, A. (2017). Chronic cigarette smoke mediated global changes in lung mucoepidermoid cells: A phosphoproteomic analysis. OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology. [Pubmed]
    • Advani, J.#, Subbannayya, Y.#, Patel, K., Khan, A. A., Patil, A. H., Jain, A. P., Solanki, H. S., Radhakrishnan, A., Pinto, S. M., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Thomas, J. K., Mathur, P. P., Nair, B., Chang, X., Prasad, T. S. K., Sidransky, D., Gowda H., Chatterjee, A. (2017). Long term cigarette smoke exposure and changes in microRNA expression and proteome in non-small cell lung cancer. OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology. [PubMed] (# These authors contributed equally to the manuscript)
    • Verma, R., Pinto, S., Patil, A. H., Advani, J., Subba, P., Kumar, M., Sharma, J., Dey, G., Ravikumar, R., Buggi, S., Satishchandra, P., Sharma, K., Suar, M. T., Srikanth, C., Singh, D., Gowda, H., Pandey, A., Gandotra, S. and Prasad, T. S. K. (2017). Quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of H37Ra and H37Rv strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Proteome Research. 4, 1632-1645. [PubMed]
    • Dammalli, M., Murthy, K. R., Pinto, S. M., Murthy, K. B., Nirujogi, R. S., Madugundu, A. K., Dey, G., Nair, B., Gowda, H. and Prasad, T. S. K. (2017). Towards post-genomics ophthalmology: A proteomic map of the human choroid-retinal pigment epithelium tissue. OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology. 2, 114-122. [Pubmed]
    • Prasad, T. S. K., Mohanty, A. K., Kumar, M., Sreenivasamurthy, S. K., Dey, G., Nirujogi, R. S., Pinto, S. M., Madugundu, A. K., Patil, A. H., Advani, J., Manda, S. S., Gupta, M. K., Dwivedi, S. B., Kelkar, D. S., Hall, B., Jiang, X., Peery, A., Rajagopalan, P., Yelamanchi, S. D., Solanki, H. S., Raja, R., Sathe, G. J., Chavan, S. N., Verma, R., Patel, K. M., Jain, A. P., Syed, N., Datta, K. K., Khan, A. A., Dammalli, M., Jayaram, S., Radhakrishnan, A., Mitchell, C. J., Na, C. H., Kumar, N., Sinnis, P., Sharakhov, I. V., Wang, C., Gowda, H., Tu, Z., Kumar, A., and Pandey, A. (2016). Integrating transcriptomic and proteomic data for accurate assembly and annotation of genomes. Genome Research. 1, 133-144. [PubMed]
    • Mir, S. A., Pinto, S. M., Paul, S., Raja, R., Nanjappa, V., Syed, N., Advani, J., Renuse, S., ahasrabuddhe, N. A., Prasad, T. S. K., Giri, A. K., Gowda, H., and Chatterjee, A. (2016). SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals widespread molecular alterations in human skin keratinocytes upon chronic arsenic exposure. Proteomics. [Pubmed]
    • Murthy, K. R., Dammalli, M., Pinto, S. M., Murthy, K. B., Nirujogi, R. S., Madugundu A. K., Dey, G., Subbannayya, Y., Mishra, U.K., Nair, B., Gowda, H., Prasad, T. S. K. (2016). A comprehensive proteomics analysis of the human iris tissue: Ready to embrace postgenomics precision medicine in ophthalmology?. OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology. 9, 510-9. [PubMed]
    • Sathe, G. J*., Pinto, S. M*., Syed, N., Nanjappa, V., Solanki, H. S., Renuse, S., Chavan, S., Khan, A. A., Patil, A. H., Nirujogi, R. S., Nair, B., Mathur, P. P., Prasad, T. S. K. Gowda, H. and Chatterjee, A. (2016). Phosphotyrosine profiling of curcumin-induced signaling. Clinical Proteomics. 13, 13. [PubMed] (*The authors contributed equally)
    • Subbannayya, Y., Pinto, S. M., Gowda, H. and Prasad, T. S. K. (2015). Proteogenomics for understanding oncology: recent advances and future prospects. Expert Review of Proteomics.13:297-308. [PubMed]
    • Subbannayya, T., Leal-Rojas, P., Barbhuiya, M., Raja, R., Renuse, S., Sathe, G., Pinto, S. M., Syed, N., Nanjappa, V., Patil, A. H., Garcia, P., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Nair, B., Guerrero-Preston, R., Navani, S., Tiwari, P. K., Santosh, V., Sidransky, D., Prasad, T. S. K., Gowda, H., Roa, J. C., Pandey, A. and Chatterjee, A. (2015). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor - a therapeutic target in gallbladder cancer. BMC Cancer. 15, 843. [PubMed]
    • Li, R., Liao, G., Nirujogi, R. S., Pinto, S. M., Shaw, P. G., Huang, T. C., Wan, J., Qian, J., Gowda, H., Wu, X., Lv, D. W., Zhang, K., Manda, S. S., Pandey, A. and Hayward, S. D. (2015). Phosphoproteomic profiling reveals Epstein - Barr virus protein kinase integration of DNA damage response and mitotic signaling. PLoS Pathogens . 11, e1005346. [PubMed]
    • Zahari, M. S., Wu, X., Blair, B. G., Pinto, S. M., Nirujogi, R. S., Jelinek, C. A., Malhotra, R., Kim, M. S., Park, B. H. and Pandey, A. (2015). Activating mutations in PIK3CA lead to widespread modulation of the tyrosine phosphoproteome. Journal of Proteome Research. 14, 3882-3891. [PubMed]
    • Mitchell, C. J., Getnet, D., Kim, M. S., Manda, S. S., Kumar, P., Huang, T. C., Pinto, S., Nirujogi, R. S., Iwasaki, M., Shaw, P., Wu, X., Zhong, J., Chaerkady, R., Marimuthu, A., Muthusamy, B., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Raju, R., Bowman, C., Danilova, L., Cutler, J., Kelkar, D. S., Drake, C. G., Prasad, T. S. K., Marchionni, L., Marukami, P. N., Scott, A. F., Shi, L., Thierry-Mieg, J., Thierry-Mieg, T., Irizarry, R., Cope, L., Ishihama, Y., Wang, C., Gowda, H. and Pandey, A. (2015). A multi-Omic analysis of human naive CD4+ T cells. BMC Systems Biology. 9, 75. [PubMed]
    • Zahari, M. S., Wu, X., Pinto, S. M., Nirujogi, R. S., Kim, M. S., Fetics, B., Philip, M., Barnes, S. R., Godfrey, B., Gabrielson, E., Nevo, E. and Pandey, A. (2015). Phosphoproteomic profiling of tumor tissues identifies HSP27 Ser82 phosphorylation as a robust marker of early ischemia. Scientific Reports. 5, 13660. [PubMed]
    • Y, Yu., Gaillard, S., Phillip, M. J., Huang, T., Pinto, S. M., Tessarollo, G. N., Zhang, Z., Pandey, A., Wirtz, D., Ayhan, A., Davidson, B., Wang, T. and Shih, I. (2015). Inhibition of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase potentiates paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells by stabilizing microtubules. Cancer Cell. 28, 82-96. [PubMed]
    • Murthy, K. R., Rajagopalan, P., Pinto, S. M., Advani, J., Murthy, P. R., Goel, R., Subbannayya, Y., Balakrishnan, L., Dash, M., Anil, A. K., Manda, S. M., Nirujogi, R. S., Kelkar, D. S., Sathe, G. J., Dey, G., Chatterjee, A., Gowda, H., Chakravarti, S., Shankar, S., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Nair, B., Somani, B. L., Prasad, T. S. K. and Pandey, A. (2015). Proteomics of human aqueous humor. OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology . 19, 283-293. [PubMed]
    • Subbannayya, Y., Mir, S. A., Renuse, S., Manda, S. S., Pinto, S. M., Puttamallesh, V. N., Solanki, H. S., Manju, H .C., Syed, N., Sharma, R., Christopher, R., Vijayakumar, M., Veerendra Kumar, K. V., Prasad, T. S. K., Ramaswamy, G., Kumar, R. V., Chatterjee, A., Pandey, A. and Gowda, H. (2015). Identification of differentially expressed serum proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma. Journal of Proteomics . S1874-3919. [PubMed]
    • Syed, N., Barbhuiya, M. A., Pinto, S. M., Nirujogi, R. S., Renuse, S., Datta, K. K., Khan, A. A., Srikumar, K., Prasad, T. S. K., Vijaya Kumar, M., Kumar, R. V., Chatterjee, A., Pandey, A. and Gowda, H. (2015). Phosphotyrosine profiling identifies ephrin receptor A2 as a potential therapeutic target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Proteomics. 15, 374-382. [PubMed]
    • Pinto, S. M., Nirujogi, R. S., Leal-Rojas, P., Patil, A. H., Manda, S. S., Subbannayya, Y., Roa, J. C., Chatterjee, A., Prasad, T. S. K and Pandey, A. (2015). Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of IL-33 mediated signaling. Proteomics. 15, 532-544. [PubMed]
    • Ambekar, A. S., Kelkar, D. S., Pinto, S. M., Sharma, R., Hinduja, I., Zaveri, K., Pandey, A., Prasad, T. S. K., Gowda, H. and Mukherjee, S. (2015). Proteomics of follicular fluid from women with polycystic ovary syndrome suggests molecular defects in follicular development. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 100, 744-753. [PubMed]
    • Huang, T. C., Renuse, S., Pinto, S., Kumar, P., Yang, Y., Chaerkady, R., Godsey, B., Mendell, J. T., Halushka, M. K., Civin, C. I., Marchionni, L. and Pandey, A. (2015). Identification of miR-145 targets through an integrated omics analysis. Molecular Biosystems . 11, 197-207. [PubMed]
    • Subbannayya, Y., Syed, N., Barbhuiya, M. A., Raja, R., Marimuthu, A., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Pinto, S. M., Manda, S. S., Renuse, S., Manju, H. C., Zameer, M. A. L., Sharma, J., Brait, M., Srikumar, K., Roa, J. C., Vijaya Kumar, M., Veerendra Kumar, K. V., Prasad, T. S. K., Ramaswamy, G., Kumar, R. V., Pandey, A., Gowda, H. and Chatterjee, A. (2015). Calcium calmodulin dependent kinase kinase 2 - a novel therapeutic target for gastric adenocarcinoma. Cancer Biology and Therapy. 16, 336-345. [PubMed]
    • Syed, N., Chavan, S., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Renuse, S., Sathe, G., Nanjappa, V., Radhakrishnan, A., Raja, R., Pinto, S. M., Srinivasan, A., Prasad, T. S. K., Srikumar, K., Gowda, H., Santosh, V., Sidransky, D., Califano, J. A., Pandey, A and Chatterjee, A. (2015). Silencing of high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) modulates cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Proteomics.15, 383-393. [PubMed]
    • Kim, M. S., Pinto, S. M., Getnet, D., Nirujogi, R. S., Manda, S. S., Chaerkady, R., Madugundu, A. K., Kelkar, D. S., Isserlin, R., Jain, S., Thomas, J. K., Muthusamy, B., Leal-Rojas, P., Kumar, P., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Balakrishnan, L., Advani, J., George, B., Renuse, S., Selvan, L. D. N., Patil, A. H., Nanjappa, V., Radhakrishnan, A., Prasad, S., Subbannayya, T., Raju, R., Kumar, M., Sreenivasamurthy, S. K., Marimuthu, A., Sathe, G. J., Chavan, S., Datta, K. K., Subbannayya, Y., Sahu, A., Yelamanchi, S. D., Jayaram, S., Rajagopalan, P., Sharma, J., Murthy, K. R., Syed, N., Goel, R., Khan, A. A., Ahmad, S., Dey, G., Mudgal, K., Chatterjee, A., Huang, T. C., Zhong, J., Wu, X., Shaw, P. G., Freed, D., Zahari, M. S., Mukherjee, K. K., Shankar, S., Mahadevan, A., Lam, H., Mitchell, C. J., Shankar, S. K., Satishchandra, P., Schroeder, J. T., Sirdeshmukh, R., Maitra, A., Leach, S. D., Drake, C. G., Halushka, M. K., Prasad, T. S. K., Hruban, R. H., Kerr, C. L., Bader, G. D., Iacobuzio-Donahue, C. A., Gowda, H. and Pandey, A. (2014). A draft map of the human proteome. Nature. 509, 575-581. [PubMed]
    • Pinto, S. M., Manda, S. S., Kim, M. S., Taylor, K., Selvan, L. D. N., Balakrishnan, L., Subbannayya, T., Yan, F., Prasad, T. S. K., Gowda, H., Lee, C., Hancock, W. S. and Pandey, A. (2014). Functional annotation of proteome encoded by human chromosome 22. Journal of Proteome Research. 13, 2749-2760. [PubMed]
    • Manda, S., Nirujogi, R. S., Pinto, S., Kim, M. S., Datta, K. K., Sirdeshmukh, R., Prasad, T. S. K., Thongboonkerd, V., Pandey, A. and Gowda, H. (2014). Identification and characterization of proteins encoded by chromosome 12 as part of Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project. Journal of Proteome Research. 13, 3166-3177. [PubMed]
    • Kelkar, D. S., Provost. E., Chaerkady, R., Muthusamy, B., Manda, S. S., Subbannayya, T., Selvan, L. D. N., Wang, C. H., Datta, K. K., Woo, S., Dwivedi, S. B., Renuse, S., Getnet, D., Huang, T. C., Kim, M. S., Pinto, S. M., Mitchell, C. J., Madugundu, A. K., Kumar, P., Sharma, J. Advani, J., Dey, G., Balakrishnan, L., Syed, N., Nanjappa, V., Subbannayya, Y., Goel, R., Prasad, T. S. K., Bafna, V., Sirdeshmukh, R., Gowda, H., Wang, C., Leach, S. D. and Pandey, A. (2014). Annotation of the zebrafish genome through an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. 13,3184-3198. [PubMed]
    • Selvan, L. D. N., Kaviyil, J. E., Nirujogi, R. S., Muthusamy, B., Puttamallesh, V. N., Subbannayya, T., Syed, N., Radhakrishnan, A., Kelkar, D. S., Ahmad, S., Pinto, S. M., Kumar, P., Madugundu, A. K., Nair, B., Chatterjee, A., Pandey, A., Ravikumar, R., Gowda, H. and Prasad, T. S. K. (2014). Proteogenomic analysis of pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans using high resolution mass spectrometry. Clinical Proteomics. 11, 5. [PubMed]
    • Selvan, L. D. N., Renuse, S., Jyothi, E. K., Sharma, J., Pinto, S. M., Yelamanchi, S. D., Puttamallesh, V. N., Ravikumar, R., Pandey, A., Prasad, T. S. K. and Harsha, H. C. (2014). Phosphoproteome of Cryptococcus neoformans. Journal of Proteomics. 97, 287-95. [PubMed]
    • Bhattacharjee, M., Sharma, R., Goel, R., Balakrishnan, L., Renuse, S., Advani, J., Shantal, T. G., Verma, R., Pinto, S. M., Nirujogi, R. S., Nair, B., Prasad, T. S. K., Harsha, H. C., Jois, R., Shankar, S. and Pandey, A. (2013). A Multilectin affinity approach for comparative glycoprotein profiling of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy. Clinical Proteomics. 10, 11. [PubMed]
    • Goel, R., Murthy, K., Srikanth, S. M., Pinto, S. M., Bhattacharjee, M., Kelkar, D. S., Madugundu, A. K., Dey, G., Mohan, S. S., Krishna, V., Prasad, T. S. K., Chakravarti, S., Harsha, H. C. and Pandey, A. (2013). Characterizing the normal proteome of human ciliary body. Clinical Proteomics. 10, 9. [PubMed]
    • Hansen, A. M., Chaerkady, R., Sharma, J., Díaz-Mejía, J. J., Tyagi, N., Renuse, S., Jacob, H. K. C., Pinto, S. M., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Kim, M. S., Delange, B., Srinivasan, N., Emili, A., Kaper, J. and Pandey, A. (2013). The Escherichia coli phosphotyrosine proteome relates to core pathways and virulence. PLoS Pathogens. 9, e1003403. [PubMed]
    • Harsha, H. C., Pinto, S. M. and Pandey, A. (2013). Proteomic strategies to characterize signaling pathways. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1007, 359-377. [PubMed]
    • Huang, T. C., Pinto, S. M. and Pandey, A. (2013). Proteomics for understanding microRNA biology. Proteomics. 13, 558-567. [PubMed]
    • Marimuthu, A., Subbannayya, Y., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Balakrishnan, L., Syed, N., Sekhar, N. R., Katte, T. V., Pinto, S. M., Srikanth, S. M., Kumar, P., Pawar, H., Kashyap, M. K., Maharudraiah, J., Ashktorab, H., Smoot, D. T., Ramaswamy, G., Kumar, R. V., Cheng, Y., Meltzer, S. J., Roa, J. C., Chaerkady, R., Prasad, T. S. K., Harsha, H. C., Chatterjee, A. and Pandey, A. (2012). SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of gastric cancer secretome. Proteomics - Clinical Applications. 7, 355-366. [PubMed]
    • Prasad, T. S. K., Harsha, H. C., Keerthikumar, S., Sekhar, N. R., Selvan, L. D. N., Kumar, P., Pinto, S. M., Muthusamy, B., Subbannayya, Y., Renuse, S., Chaerkady, R., Mathur, P. P., Ravikumar, R. and Pandey, A. (2012). Proteogenomic analysis of Candida glabrata using high resolution mass spectrometry. Journal of Proteome Research. 11, 247-260. [PubMed]
    • Shet, A. S., Pinto, S. M., Mitra, G., Mandal, A. K. (2012). Glutathionyl hemoglobin is elevated in iron deficiency anemia. ActaHaematologica. 127 (1), 26-30. [PubMed]
    • Barbhuiya, M. A., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Pinto, S. M., Muthusamy, B., Singh, T. D., Nanjappa, V., Keerthikumar, S., Delanghe, B., Harsha, H. C., Chaerkady, R., Jalaj, V., Gupta, S., Shrivastav, B. R., Tiwari, P. K. and Pandey, A. (2011). Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human bile. Proteomics. 11, 4443- 4453. [PubMed]
    • Raju, R., Nanjappa, V., Balakrishnan, L., Radhakrishnan, A., Thomas, J. K., Sharma, J., Tian, M., Palapetta, S. M., Subbannayya, T., Sekhar, N. R., Muthusamy, B., Goel, R., Subbannayya, Y., Telikicherla, D., Bhattacharjee, M., Pinto, S., Syed, N., Srikanth, M. S., Sathe, G. J., Ahmad, S., Chavan, S. N., Kumar, G. S. S., Marimuthu, A., Prasad, T. S. K., Harsha, H. C., Rahiman, B. A., Ohara, O., Bader, G. D., Mohan, S. S., Schiemann, W. P. and Pandey, A. (2011). NetSlim: High-confidence curated signaling maps. Database. 2011, bar032. [PubMed]
    • Chaerkady, R., Kelkar, D. S., Muthusamy, B., Kandasamy, K., Dwivedi, S. B., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Kim, M-S., Renuse, S., Pinto, S. M., Sharma, R., Pawar, H., Sekhar, N. R., Mohanty, A. K., Getnet, D., Yang, Y., Zhong, J., Dash, A. P., MacCallum, R. M., Delanghe, B., Mlambo, G., Kumar, A., Prasad, T. S. K., Okulate, M., Kumar, N. and Pandey, A. (2011). A proteogenomic analysis of Anopheles gambiae using high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Genome Research. 21, 1872-1881. [PubMed]
    • Shao, H., Chaerkady, R., Chen, S., Pinto, S. M., Sharma, R., Delanghe, B., Birk, D., Pandey, A. and Chakravarti, S. (2011). Proteome profiling of wild type and lumican-deficient mouse corneas. Journal of Proteomics. 74, 1895-1905. [PubMed]
    • Marimuthu, A., O'Meally, R., Chaerkady, R., Subbannayya, Y., Nanjappa, V., Kumar, P., Kelkar, D., Pinto, S., Sharma, R., Renuse, S., Goel, R., Christopher, R., Delanghe, B., Cole, R. N., Harsha, H. C. and Pandey, A. (2011). A comprehensive map of the human urinary proteome.Journal of Proteome Research. 10, 2734-2743. [PubMed]
    • Nayak, B. S. and Pinto, S. (2007). Protein thiols and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance status in colon cancer patients. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 42, (7), 848-851. [PubMed]
    • Nayak, B. S., Yashwanth, S., Pinto, S. M., Bhat, V. R., Mayya, S. S. (2005). Serum copper, ceruloplasmin, protein thiols and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance status in liver cancer associated with elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 49, (3), 341-344. [PubMed]